Excerts from "Mirrors, Strings & Manifolds: The Geometry of Everything," C1994, Pg.5

Charge and Gravity

Which brings us to the topic of charge mechanics. The couriers of charge in this model are depleted quanta, the same quanta which make up the volume of space-time. As I indicated earlier, the volume a quanta conserves is inversely proportional to the scalar energy content of the quanta. This is because the energy of the quanta is in its angular momentum, and since the angular momentum of the quanta can only come in the values of + or - h, the scalar energy content determines its volume. A high energy quanta is therefore very tiny, a low energy quanta is very large. Normally quanta only experience energy-energy interactions involving phase mixing (recalculation of each quanta's "spreadsheet") when they are very close in frequency. Most of the time, high energy corpuscles will tend to pass right through low energy corpuscles without mixing phases, but the high energy corpuscle may be scattered classically by the interaction with the low energy corpuscle's volume and rotation. For instance, if I shoot a photon, an open section of corpuscular string end-propagating through space, the corpuscles in the photon can be scattered by the depleted quanta comprising space without the photon recognizing the fact. The "spreadsheet" that the universe uses to keep track of the photon is not updated by classical scattering interactions. Only when one of those scattered quanta interact with another energetic quanta, or a quark, is there a mixing of phases. When particles mix phases with energy, the particle spreadsheets are updated. The place where the interaction occurs is the address where the universe writes all the quanta in the photon to, regardless of how classically scattered they are in space-time. This is wave collapse of a photon, but its a crowd wave, and it doesn't know its a wave at all. If that has you totally confused (or outraged), then its probably a good time to invoke to charge mechanics.

A quark is a collision cell of nuclear strings. The quark is like a big fat quanta that conserves three or more fundamental units of volume, it has some exotic properties. For one thing, it has to keep track of the energy and volume of three or more quanta mixing phases in it at different angles. That's a heck of a lot to keep track of with the simple forms the geometry has been developing up to now. Now, as a big fat quanta with a heck of a lot to keep track of, and a lot of energy, a depleted quanta may see it as something it can mix phases with. The quark disagrees, says "I got my hands full already, and I got more energy then I can find a place to put it. Here," says the quark, "take this and get away from me." The quark does mix phases briefly with the depleted quanta, long enough to shove it away. The process of shoving it away involves flipping both the internal arrows, momentum and angular momentum, and rotating it into the other domain. Actually, it could only flip one arrow and be forced to rotate the quanta's dimensions to prevent a violation in conservation of angular momentum... it depends on how the universe translates energy between domains. For example, is a right-handed hadron left-handed in lepton space? I don't know. Somehow, the quanta is translated between lepton space and hadron space, and it receives an energy boost from the quark in the process. The direction of the translation (lepton --> hadron) or (lepton <-- hadron) determines the polarity of the charge force. The charge force has a long range attraction between oppositely charged particles, as each particle drags space-time towards it from one domain and sources it in the opposite domain. As the opposite charges draw closer together, they start repelling each other, because the quanta they are kicking off start hitting the other particle directly, delivering their energy to each other via the charge couriers. There is nothing "virtual" about these depleted quanta, they are the fabric of space-time. So, the charge force has a long range and short range component, and it is a process of translating energy between the two domains of space-time. In this regard, the surface of a quark is like a magic mirror, or perhaps, a doorway.
But wait just one second... if charge robs energy from the nucleus, the nucleus will run out of energy! Can't have that, particles are conserved in a number of ways, and that means they are policed by conservation laws. It takes a particular minimum surface area, a minimum energy content to conserve charge quantization for the particle spreadsheet. If a particle is made of right-handed hadron string, and it needs more energy, all it has to do is radiate a left-handed quanta. Conservation of angular momentum will say, "hey, you can't radiate that left-handed energy unless you add an equal amount of right-handed energy to yourself." Problem solved. This energy of the opposite handedness is a graviton. This leads to the conclusion that leptons and hadrons have different gravitons, leptons use lepton string, hadrons use hadron string. Antimatter is made of strings having the opposite handedness as matter, and they will use strings of the same handedness as matter for their gravitons. But remember, in this theory it is not gravity that "warps" space-time, it is charge that creates an energy-density gradient in space-time... how does it do that? Well, if charge adds energy to the depleted quanta it kicks into the other domain, the added energy decreases the volume of the quanta to conserve its moment of angular momentum. So as you approach a gravitating body, the energy-density of spacetime goes up. The actual gravitons constituting the attractive force of gravity are quanta with their momentum applied in the opposite direction as a photon. The gravitons do not warp space-time. Gravitons liberated by hadron strings will only freely interact with other hadron strings (or anti-hadron strings) of similar frequency, or possibly in a harmonic phase for quanta of differing frequency. (I wouldn't want to entirely rule it out.) Light bends due to the energy-density gradient charge creates. Gravitons are the fuel of the charge force, and the mass of a particle is just how much gasoline it takes to keep the charge motor running at speed. Stress the charge relationship, and interesting things will happen. As you put a load on a motor, it takes more fuel to keep it running at speed.

Charge is a cosmlogical force, it is the new energy the parent universe has dumped into the daughter universe implementing itself into the manifold by redistributing the pre-existing temporal strings of the manifold. Charge delivers the energy to the pre-existing strings, causing their volume to diminish a bit, and the energy-density of space-time to increase. The charged particles in the universe are temporal conduits which carry new energy through time. The apparent expansion of the universe is due to the depletion of the energy which constitutes space. The galaxies are relatively stationary, but the volume of space keeps increasing between them, representing the depletion of energy over time. Since nuclei steal energy by radiating gravitons, their size remains fixed by their minimum energy content, but those gravitons may interact with space, cancelling energy and increasing spatial volume. *The universe expands because of gravity. The nucleus writes a check, space has to cash it. Less energy = more volume. If not for the cancelling affect of gravity, I submit that the universe would never expand. Because gravity causes the expansion, I submit the expansion will go on forever, the universe can not re-collapse, not under the force of gravity. Makes no difference how much "missing mass" you find, gravity doesn't work that way on the dimensions (i.e. volume) of space-time.

* 2008 NOTE: Actually, I knew charge was using energy and causing angular momentum in the universe to run down in 1994, but I wasn't certain where or how that energy was being expended. I knew that from a cosmological perspective the energy was being used to redistribute temporal strings and reduce their volume via charge interactions, but the exact nature of the loss of angular momentum had not occurred to me yet, so I sidestepped the issue. I realize now that every interaction with couriers of the charge force includes a small loss of angular momentum to recoil effects, and the recoil effects translate into thermal kinetic energy. In 1994 I assumed the exchange of angular momentum in interactions involving charge and gravity were 100% efficient. However that assumption leads to a universe that does not expand.

Copyright 1994, 2008 by Arnold J. Barzydlo
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